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What is Monkeypox Outbreak??

Initially, monkey pox disease has symptoms similar to chicken pox, which is watery nodules. As the disease progresses, watery nodules turn into festering and cause lumps in the neck, armpits, or groin due to swollen lymph nodes.

Monkey pox is a disease that can spread from person to person, but its main sources are rodents and primates, such as mice, squirrels, and infected monkeys.

Monkey pox is a very rare disease, but can affect anyone. This disease was first discovered during an outbreak in Africa in the 1970s.

Causes of Monkey Pox
Monkeypox disease is caused by the monkeypox virus, which spreads through the patient's saliva splashes, which enter through the eyes, mouth, nose, or sores on the skin. Apart from sprinkling saliva, transmission can also be through contaminated objects, such as patient clothing. However, human-to-human transmission is limited and requires prolonged contact.

Transmission of smallpox monkey initially occurred from animals to humans, namely through scratches or bites of animals infected with the monkeypox virus, such as monkeys or squirrels. Apart from being scratched or bitten, exposure to bodily fluids of these animals directly or through contaminated objects can also make a person infected with monkey pox.

Symptoms of Monkey Pox
Symptoms of monkey pox will appear 5-21 days since the sufferer is infected with the monkeypox virus. The initial symptoms of monkey pox are:

  • Fever
  • Shivering
  • Tired or weak
  • Headache
  • Muscle ache
  • Swollen lymph nodes (in the form of lumps in the neck, armpits, or groin)

The initial symptoms of smallpox monkey can last for 1-3 days or even more. After that, the rash will appear on the face and spread to other body parts, such as arms and legs.

The rash that appears will develop from a fluid-filled nodule to contain pus, then rupture and crust, then cause ulcers on the skin surface. This rash will last up to 2-4 weeks.

When to see a doctor
On May 9, 2019, the Singapore government announced there were 1 case of monkey pox sufferers in Singapore. Until this article was published, there were no reports of transmission of monkey pox to other sufferers.

Immediately consult a doctor if you feel symptoms such as chicken pox, which appears watery nodules, especially if:

  • Nodule changed to contain pus
  • Just on vacation from Singapore
  • There is contact with monkeys or squirrels
Some countries that still have cases of monkey pox are the Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria. For information, sufferers of monkey pox in Singapore is a citizen of Nigeria. Consult a doctor immediately if you experience symptoms of monkey pox after traveling to both countries.
Monkey Pox Diagnosis

In the initial stages of the examination, the doctor will examine the symptoms and types of rashes that appear. The doctor will also ask for a history of traveling from a country that has a case of monkey pox.

The appearance of the rash alone does not necessarily indicate monkey pox, so doctors need to conduct further tests to see the presence of the virus in the body, namely through:

  • Blood test
  • Throat rub test
  • Skin biopsy (skin tissue sampling for microscopy)
MonkeyPox Treatment
Monkey pox treatment is done to relieve symptoms that appear. The doctor will give paracetamol to relieve fever and pain, and ask the patient to rest to speed up the healing process.

In addition, sufferers are also encouraged to consume lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat milk, and grains as energy intake in fighting infection.

Monkeypox disease can spread from person to person, although the spread in this way is limited, and 1 in 10 sufferers are at risk of death. Therefore, sufferers need to be treated in isolation to get monitoring from doctors and prevent the spread of disease.

Until now, there has been no treatment for monkey pox. Monkey pox can heal itself with resistance from the sufferer's immune system.

MonkeyPox Complications
Monkey pox has a high cure rate. Although rare, this disease can still lead to complications. Less than 10% of sufferers can even experience fatal complications.

Complications of smallpox monkey include:

  • Dehydration
  • Bacterial infection
  • Lung infection
  • Monkey Pox Prevention
The main prevention of smallpox monkey is to avoid direct contact with primates and rodents, such as monkeys and squirrels, or people who are infected. In addition, some other preventive steps that can be done are:


  • Be diligent in washing hands with soap and water, or alcohol-based hand sanitizers, especially before eating, touching your nose or eyes, and cleaning wounds.
  • Avoid sharing cutlery or using the same bed linen with people infected with monkey pox.
To prevent transmission, doctors can administer variola vaccine, especially for medical workers who treat monkey pox patients. In addition to variola vaccination, medical personnel also need to wear personal protective equipment when treating patients.

Variola or smallpox is a disease that has disappeared since 1980. Although variola is a different disease from monkey pox, the variola vaccine has proven to be quite effective in preventing monkey pox. Given the disease that has been destroyed, the availability of this vaccine is also limited.

If you have a pet that is suspected of being infected with the monkey pox virus, contact your veterinarian immediately and do not allow the animal to roam. Keep in mind, use gloves when going into contact with these pets.

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